1. PRESENTATION OF PLAINT: The civil proceeding set into motion by filing the plaint in the civil court. The plaint includes the name of the court in which the suit is filed, name and place of residence of the plaintiff, name and place of residence of defendant, cause of action, facts showing that court has jurisdiction, relief, the value of the subject matter of the suit.

2. SERVICE OF SUMMONS:  when the suit is instituted summons is issued to the defendant for appearing in court and to answer the suit filed against him. It notifies the person that the suit is filed against him in court.

3. APPEARANCE OF PARTIES: the summons contains the date on which the defendant has to appear in court and answer the allegation put against him by the plaintiff. If the defendant would not appeared on the fixed date the court will proceed ex parte. If it is found that the defendant does not appear because summons is not served upon him due to the fault of the plaintiff the court may dismiss the suit. Such dismissal is no bar to the fresh suit on the same cause of action.

4. EX- PARTE DECREE- a decree passed in absence of the defendant without hearing him or in absence of his defence is called ex parte decree.

5. INTERLOCUTORY PROCEEDINGS: Period taken in disposing of a suit is substantially long. Court intervention becomes necessary to maintain ‘status quo’ between the parties. Status quo means to keep things as they are.

6. WRITTEN STATEMENT: ORDER 8 deals with the rules of a written statement. The defendant is required to file the written statement in court before the first hearing or at the first hearing in which he answers the facts alleged against him by the plaintiff in the plaint.

7. PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS: At this stage, both parties present their documents related to the suit before the court.

8. EXAMINATION OF PARTIES: ORDER 10 deals with the examination of parties. The examination is oral. After the appearance of parties, the examination is the next stage. At this stage, parties deny or admit allegations alleged in a petition or written statement.

9. DISCOVERY AND INSPECTION: ORDER 11 deals with the rules of discovery and inspection. With the permission of the court plaintiff or defendant interrogates the opposite party related to the matter in issue.

10. ADMISSION: ORDER 12 deals with rules of admission. Either party can call upon another party to admit any document within 7days from the date of service of notice.  In case of refusal or neglecting the party who refused will bear the cost of proving such a document before the court. This procedure is rarely followed by the advocates of the parties.

11. FRAMING OF ISSUE: ORDER 14 deals with rules of framing of issues. The exclusive duty of framing the issue is assigned to the judge. Issues are affirmed by one party and denied by another party. The issue can be of two types i.e., issue of fact and the issue of law.

12. SUMMONING AND ATTENDANCE OF WITNESSES: ORDER 16 deals with rules of summoning and attendance of witnesses. After framing the issuing court fixed the date for the parties to present a list of witnesses before the court that they want to call for the production of documents or give evidence.

13. HEARING OF SUITS AND EXAMINATION OF WITNESS (ORDER 18): The court begins hearing from the plaintiff and shifts from him to the defendant. Both parties are examined before the court and then the witnesses called by them are examined. The evidence examination is done by the court.

14. ARGUMENT: after the evidence from both sides is over then the argument takes place. Both the parties submit a summary of their case to the judge.

15. JUDGEMENT: Judgement means the final decision given by the judge under ORDER 20.

16. PREPARATION OF DECREE: after the judgement is passed by the judge a decree is prepared by the clerk under order 20 rule 6.


18. EXECUTION OF DECREE (order 21) enables decree-holder to execute the judgement.

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