In a landmark decision, the Supreme Court has instructed state governments to promptly disburse arrears to judges, adhering to the Second National Judicial Pay Commission (SNJPC) recommendations. Chief Justice DY Chandrachud, along with Justices JB Pardiwala and Manoj Misra, issued the directive, emphasizing the urgency of completing these payments by February 29, 2024.

Key Highlights of SNJPC Recommendations:

1. House Building Advance (HBA):
– Judicial officers can now use HBA for purchasing ready-built houses from private individuals, subject to state-prescribed safeguards.

2. Children Education Allowance (CEA):
– CEA, effective from the academic year 2019-2020, includes Rs 2,250 per month and Rs 6,750 per month as hostel subsidy for two children up to Class 12. Special needs children receive double the reimbursement.

3. Conveyance/Transport Allowance (TP):
– Pool car service for judicial officers is discontinued.
– Three additional judicial functionaries are now eligible for official vehicles.
– Judicial officers can display an optional ‘Judge’ sticker on their vehicles.

4. Higher Qualification Allowance:
– Judicial officers receive three advance increments for post-graduation in law and an extra increment for a Doctorate in Law.
– Advance increments for higher qualifications are extended to officers with degrees from distance learning programs.

5. Hill Area/Tough Location Allowance:
– Judicial officers in hill areas/tough locations receive Rs. 5000/- per month.

6. Home Orderly/Domestic Help Allowance:
– District Judges and Civil Judges receive allowances for home-cum-office orderly services.

7. House Rent Allowance and Residential Quarters:
– Urgent construction of residential quarters for judicial officers is recommended.
– Officers to be provided accommodation or requisitioned private accommodation within one month of taking charge.

8. Medical Allowance:
– Fixed medical allowance increased to Rs 3,000 per month for serving officers and Rs 4,000 per month for pensioners and family pensioners.

9. Risk Allowance:
– Available to judicial officers in Jammu & Kashmir and insurgency-affected North East States at rates equivalent to civilian government officials.

10. Special Pay for Administrative Work:
– Introduced for judicial officers with administrative responsibilities from 01.01.2019.

11. Transfer Grant:
– Composite transfer grant equivalent to one month’s basic pay recommended.

12. Additional Allowances:
– Newspaper and Magazine allowance, Robe Allowance, Telephone, and Mobile facility recommendations accepted.

Implementation Oversight:

To ensure effective implementation, the Court directs High Courts to form a ‘Committee for Service Conditions of the District Judiciary.’


This groundbreaking judgment not only addresses the long-pending issue of enhanced pay for judges but also meticulously outlines comprehensive recommendations from the SNJPC. The directives span diverse allowances, reflecting a commitment to improving the working conditions and welfare of judicial officers. The expeditious disbursement of arrears by February 29, 2024, adds urgency to the implementation process, marking a crucial step towards bolstering the judicial system in India.

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